Sunday, May 1, 2016

Go West, Old Man!

Though I did not visit the American West until I was 25 years old, I had imagined living there since my early teenage years; deep blue skies, colorful rock formations, mountain vistas and "exotic" wildlife beckoned from nature films and calendars, instilling a fascination with that region of the country.  When I finally visited, traveling through most of the Western States, I was hooked and finally moved to Colorado at the age of 31.  Since that time, though I have family and many friends in the Midwest, my soul has never left the West, nourished by sunshine, dry air and spectacular landscapes; the fact that they come with spring snow and parched soil is of no consequence to me.

Today, my wife and I leave for our Colorado farm.  This time, our stay on the farm will be brief since we plan a road trip to Northern California, one of the few regions of this fabulous country that I have yet to visit.  The journey will take us across the Rockies and Colorado Plateau, through the Great Basin, into the California Cascades, down the Pacific Coast and through the heart of the Sierra Nevada.  We anticipate a wealth of majestic scenery, many species new to us and two weeks of adventure that will surely bring many unexpected and unforgettable encounters.

No doubt, there will be plenty of fodder for blog posts, which I hope to provide on a daily basis, but it may be impossible to adequately express the emotional impact of our journey.  Going home again, to many places yet unseen, is to heed the will of the soul.

Thursday, April 28, 2016

Avocets at Eagle Bluffs

A dozen American avocets graced Eagle Bluffs Conservation Area this morning, feeding in a shallow pool with blue-winged teal, American coot and a host of shorebirds.  Having wintered along the Gulf Coast or in Florida, they are headed for ephemeral wetlands, alkaline lakes and prairie ponds across the High Plains.  Many of those that winter in Mexico breed in the Intermountain West while permanent populations reside in the Central Valley of California.

These elegant birds, equipped with a long, up-curved bill, feed on aquatic invertebrates, sweeping the shallows to locate their prey.  Monogamous for the breeding season, avocets are highly territorial, aggressively defending their offspring from intruders and predators.  Following elaborate mating displays, the nest is placed on the ground, generally within a shallow scrape near the edge of a lake or pond; 3-4 eggs are normally laid though avocets sometimes parasitize the nests of black-necked stilts (and vice versa).

American avocets are most abundant across the Western U.S. and are relatively uncommon migrants in the Midwest and Eastern U.S.  Today's flock was thus a special treat for those of us who visited the Missouri River floodplain on this cool and breezy morning.

Wednesday, April 27, 2016

The California Cascades

According to the USGS, there are more than 500 volcanic vents in California.  The great majority of these are located in the northernmost portion of the State where the southern end of the Cascade Range extends across the Oregon border.  Seven hundred miles long, the Cascade Volcanic Arch began to form 37 million years ago as the Juan de Fuca Plate and its associated microplates (all remnants of the Farallon Plate) were subducting beneath the North American Plate; this process continues today as demonstrated by the spectacular eruption of Mt. St. Helens in 1980.

The Cascades of California result from the subduction of the Gorda Plate, a southern fragment of the Juan de Fuca Plate.  Mt. Shasta (14,179 feet) is second in size among modern Cascade volcanoes (exceeded only by Mt. Rainier) and, over the past 4000 years, has been the second most active of the major Cascade volcanoes (exceeded only by Mt. St. Helens).  Lassen Peak (10,461 feet), which last erupted from 1914-1917, sits among 30 volcanic domes and peaks within its own National Park and Medicine Lake Volcano, a large shield volcano northeast of Mt. Shasta, hosts Lava Beds National Monument on its northeast flank.

Until the Juan de Fuca and associated Plates have been completely recycled (shutting off the fuel for volcanism), the Cascades will continue to form and erupt.  In addition, the entire coast of the Pacific Northwest (from British Columbia to Northern California) will remain susceptible to earthquakes and tsunamis, generated along the subduction trench.

Tuesday, April 26, 2016

The Nuthatch Warbler

When you're warbler hunting and a nuthatch catches your eye, look again!  Black-and-white warblers are often mistaken for nuthatches due to their habit of creeping along tree trunks and large limbs, searching the bark for insects, spiders and their larvae.  Easily observed and identified (unlike many of their cousins), they are aggressive birds, often chasing other insectivores from their feeding site.

Fairly common summer residents of deciduous and mixed forests in the eastern U.S. and southern Canada, they are often encountered in suburban woodlots and city parks during migrations.  Once in their breeding territory, these agile arborists place their nest on the ground, hiding the cup of vegetation beneath understory shrubs, in rock crevices or among fallen limbs; nuthatches, by contrast, nest in tree cavities.

As chilly autumn nights spread south through the Continent, black-and-white warblers head for warmer climes where their prey remains active; their wintering grounds extend from South Texas to South America and from Florida to the Caribbean islands.  Meanwhile, the hardy nuthatches of North America stay behind, managing to survive on hibernating insects, their pupae or their eggs and a variety of seeds.

Monday, April 25, 2016

The Missouri Plateau

The Missouri Plateau is an unglaciated region of the Great Plains of North America, extending from central Montana and northeast Wyoming across western portions of North and South Dakota.  Bounded by glaciated plains to its north and east, by the Rocky Mountains Province to its west and by the High Plains to its south, the Plateau is drained by the the Missouri River and tributaries arriving from the south and west: the Yellowstone, Little Missouri, Grande, Moreau, Cheyenne and White Rivers.

Since the Missouri Plateau is coated with relatively soft Tertiary sediments, eroded from the Rockies, many of these tributaries have produced "badlands" along their valleys; the most famous of these, protected within Badlands National Park, was eroded by the White River of southwestern South Dakota.  The most prominent geographic feature within this province, however, is the Precambrian dome of the Black Hills, that rose through the younger sediments.  Another region of topographic relief is along the Pine Ridge Escarpment of northwest Nebraska, northeast Wyoming and southwest South Dakota, where the north edge of the High Plains drops into the dissected terrain of the Missouri Plateau.

To the disinterested traveler, the Great Plains of our Continent may seem to be a single, vast province of prairie and crop fields, extending from the Mississippi Valley to the Rocky Mountain corridor.  In reality, the Plains are a mosaic of geographic regions, the products of underlying geology, glaciation, stream erosion, elevation and climate.  For those who care to look, each region offers unique natural features, including its own mix of fauna and flora.

Saturday, April 23, 2016

Backyard Safaris

Our property in Columbia, Missouri, is of modest size but has enough variety of foliage and landscape to attract an interesting diversity of creatures.  Raccoons, opossums, cottontails, squirrels, field mice, shrews, moles and occasional white-tailed deer are among the mammalian residents and visitors.  Amphibians and reptiles include American toads, garter snakes and blue-tailed skinks and, of course, we host the usual mix of resident and migrant birds.  Then there are the various insects, spiders and crustaceans that, in the end, are of most interest to young children.

Indeed, having grandchildren sets the stage for regular backyard safaris.  While the excursions are not always successful when it comes to finding reptiles and mammals, these mini-adventures are sure to turn up a variety of interesting creatures.  Our oldest grandson has become an amateur birder (spurred on by the gift of a field guide) while his younger brother is most fascinated with ladybugs, daddy-long-legs and rollie-pollies; but the chance of finding a snake or lizard is usually the initial motivation.

Such explorations, rarely lasting more than 30 minutes, are enjoyable for the leader and the kids alike.  In truth, I often discover something new myself (especially in the plant kingdom) and know that these safaris will have lasting effects on the boys.  Like most things in life, an interest in nature is best instilled during childhood.

Friday, April 22, 2016

Prince & Ecuadorans

A few days ago, upon learning of the tragic earthquake in Ecuador, I tuned into our "most reliable" cable news network to get the details.  Unfortunately, they were waiting for a news conference with Donald Trump; worse yet, they have given the tragedy very little attention ever since, deferring primarily to coverage of dysfunctional American politics.  This is despite the fact that nearly 500 persons were killed in the earthquake and the economy of Ecuador will likely suffer for many years to come.

Yesterday, the news of Prince's death, an icon of American music, sent that channel into overdrive, providing continuous coverage of his career, a commitment that lasted most of the afternoon and evening and resumed this morning.  While his contribution to music was surely significant and his life deserves tribute and coverage by the mainstream media, the current ongoing marathon is clearly the product of American celebrity worship (and the dollars that it brings) not a journalistic decision based on the relative importance of world events.

Unfortunately, the discrepancy between the coverage of Prince's death and the Ecuador earthquake unveils the inward focus of most Americans as well as our obsession with celebrity.  If it's not happening in America or directly affecting American citizens, we're not interested; we may donate to the Red Cross but otherwise tune out the story.  After all, five hundred Ecuadorans cannot measure up to one American superstar.

Thursday, April 21, 2016

A Grove of Warblers

On my tour of Eagle Bluffs Conservation Area this morning, the expected mix of birds was found.  Blue-winged teal were abundant, joined by lesser numbers of northern shovelers, American coot, gadwall, wood ducks and mallards.  Shorebirds included greater and lesser yellowlegs, common snipe, spotted sandpipers, pectoral sandpipers and a small flock of dowitchers.  The resident bald eagles (2 pair) were present and I encountered the first green herons of the season.

The highlight of my visit occurred on my way out when I noticed two small birds flitting about a grove of trees that line the central channel.  Pulling over for a closer look, I soon discovered that the grove was alive with small insectivores; yellow-rumped warblers were most abundant, joined by palm warblers, Tennessee warblers, prothonotary warblers, a northern waterthrush and a pair of blue-gray gnatcatchers.  Among these relatively common species was a lone male blackpoll warbler.

This collection of small, colorful songbirds, less than ten feet from my pickup, reminded me of past visits to Cane Creek and Magee Marsh on the southern shore of Lake Erie, were spring migrants congregate to rest and feed before crossing the open waters.  No doubt, the activity of one flock attracted the others, creating a warbler spectacle amidst the vast landscape of Eagle Bluffs.

Wednesday, April 20, 2016

Beautiful but Deadly

Over the past week, several clumps of star-of-bethlehem have appeared in our flower beds and along our wood border.  Also known as grass lilies, these beautiful immigrants are native to Eurasia; they escaped cultivation in North America and are now widely dispersed in moist, Temperate regions of the Continent.

Characterized by showy, white, star-shaped flowers and grass-like leaves, star-of-bethlehem produces small seeds but reproduces primarily by division of their bulbs; like daylilies, these geophytes are thus often found in dense clumps.  Botanists have long argued whether this wildflower should be grouped with lilies, hyacinths or members of the asparagus family; depending on latitude, they bloom from April to early June.

As is often the case in the plant world, the beauty of grass lilies comes with a price.  All portions of the plant are toxic to mammals (humans included) and this wildflower, which often adorns pastures, has been known to kill livestock.

Tuesday, April 19, 2016

The Best Birding Month

Most birders across Temperate latitudes of North America would likely agree that April is the best birding month of the year.  While migrant swans, geese and cranes move through in February and March, the waterfowl migration is peaking as April begins.  Winter visitors and residents can still be found through the middle of the month and permanent residents are especially active and conspicuous in April due to the onset of their breeding season.

Shorebird migrations peak during April and summer songbirds begin to arrive early in the month; by mid April, a mix of winter and summer residents join permanent residents in our parks, suburbs and refuges.  As the winter birds begin to depart, migrant and summer songbirds arrive in increasing numbers; among these are the first waves of warblers and flycatchers, which can be difficult species to identify.  Fortunately, nature provides some assistance as leaves remain rather small and unobtrusive throughout most of April.

By the end of the month, most summer residents have arrived and most migrants have passed through the region; exceptions include common nighthawks, late warblers and late flycatchers which generally turn up during the first two weeks of May.  No doubt, every season has its birding highlights but April offers more than its share.

Monday, April 18, 2016

Deluge in Houston

The ongoing deluge in Houston, Texas, is the product of a stalled cold front in East Texas and a "blocking high" over the eastern U.S.  The latter dome of high pressure has caused the cold front to become stationary and, at the same time, is funneling a plume of Gulf moisture into the area.  In the Northern Hemisphere, winds flow clockwise around high pressure domes and, in this case, are sweeping across the Gulf of Mexico and into Metro Houston; there, the cold front lifts the moisture-laden air, producing copious precipitation.

In northwest Houston, more than 15 inches of rain have fallen, 5 inches more than the previous record for the entire month of April.  As one might expect, severe flooding is widespread, snarling traffic, damaging structures and threatening lives.  As I write this post, the dome and its moisture plume are slowly shifting eastward and rain is beginning to dissipate in the city.

Indeed, the western edge of the high pressure dome is now entering Louisiana and Gulf moisture is streaming northward along the cold front.  Here in central Missouri, the band of heavy rain and its imbedded thunderstorms are nearing Columbia and should arrive by early evening; two days of rain are forecast before the dome and the front move on to the east.

Sunday, April 17, 2016

Ecuador's Subduction Earthquake

A massive earthquake struck the Ecuador coast, northwest of Quito, yesterday evening.  Triggered by pressure release between the South American and Nazca Plates, the magnitude 7.8 quake was 20 times more powerful than the most recent 7.0 earthquake on Kyushu Island, Japan.

The Nazca Plate, a remnant of the Farallon oceanic Plate, is subducting beneath the South American Plate along the western coast of that Continent; the volcanic Andes Mountain Range formed (and continues to form) as the leading edge of the Nazca Plate melts near the outer surface of the Earth's mantle.  As the Nazca Plate advances (about 2 inches per year), friction builds between the Plates; this may release as a series of small quakes or as a mega-thrust event as occurred this weekend.

Numerous aftershocks typically follow such mega-thrust subduction earthquakes and have done so in this case.  To date, more than 260 persons have been killed and more than 2500 have been injured; considering the power and extent of this earthquake, one can expect both figures to rise significantly.  As with the recent Japan quakes, this earthquake was centered over land (16 miles SSE of Muisne) and a destructive tsunami did not develop.

Friday, April 15, 2016

The Kyushu Earthquake

The islands of Japan sit at the convergence of four major tectonic plates: the Eurasian, North American, Pacific and Philippine Plates.  Throughout most of their history, the Pacific Plate was moving northwestward, bringing in terranes and producing volcanic island arcs as it subducted beneath the North American and Eurasian Plates.

About 45 million years ago, the movement of the Pacific Plate shifted to a westward direction (as evidenced by the angle change of the Hawaiian Ridge), creating the Philippine Plate as the Pacific Plate began to subduct along the Izu Bonin Trench.  Surrounded by subduction trenches, the Philippine Plate now subducts beneath the southern half of Japan (which lies on the Eurasian Plate), including Kyushu Island, fueling volcanic activity and triggering earthquakes.

This week's earthquake on Kyushu Island, which killed at least 9 and injured hundreds, was a magnitude 6.2 quake, centered beneath the Island just west of Kumamoto.  While subduction forces initiated the earthquake, it occurred due to slippage along a fault that bisects the Island, separating older and younger terranes.  Shifting pressure along this and associated faults led to numerous aftershocks that may continue for weeks.  Since the earthquake developed on land (not at the subduction trench itself), there was no risk of a tsunami; on the other hand, the quake could have triggered a volcanic eruption, a complication that, to date, has fortunately not occurred.

Addendum:  A second, far more powerful (magnitude 7.0) earthquake has struck near Kumamoto.  Initial reports indicate widespread damage, including landslides, and at least 26 deaths (in addition to those killed by the quake earlier this week).

Thursday, April 14, 2016

Mid-Day Nature Walk

In general, mid-day nature walks are not very productive during the warmer months, especially if you hope to encounter a good variety of wildlife.  But when you're locked out of the house and your spouse is not due home for two hours, what's a guy to do?

So I headed down to Forum Nature Area, in Columbia, and sauntered along the two-mile loop; fortunately, my decision was rewarded.  Chipping sparrows, the first I have encountered this season, were abundant along the tree line while eastern bluebirds and eastern phoebes hunted on the central meadow; northern cardinals, red-bellied woodpeckers and white-throated sparrows were especially noisy in the floodplain woodlands.  Cricket frogs and leopard frogs called from the shallows of the seasonal lake and American toads trilled from an adjacent pond.  Blue-winged teal, mallards, song sparrows and turkey vultures were also encountered but the highlight of my visit was a yellow-throated warbler feeding in a grove of sycamores; close enough for easy identification, he didn't seem to mind my presence and I watched him for at least ten minutes.

Completing the loop, I headed home, having burned most of my penalty period.  As I discovered today, many animals, fueled by reproductive hormones, are less selective about their activity schedule in spring and, when opportunity strikes, a mid-day nature walk is not a bad choice.

Wednesday, April 13, 2016

First Warbler!

Attempting to read on the back deck this afternoon, I looked up to see the first migrant warbler of the season, flitting about, high in a neighbor's tree.  Don't ask me what it was.

I immediately knew it was not one of the yellow-rumped warblers that winter in our area; they are somewhat larger and more methodical in their feeding habits.  It seemed to have a yellowish breast with no streaking and I think it had a faint wing-bar or two; from some angles, it seemed to have a narrow eye ring.  I know it had a brownish-green back or maybe it was a dark shade of olive.  Watching from a distance with my binoculars, I am reluctant to be more precise, especially since the bird never sat still for more than a second.  I'm guessing it might have been a female pine warbler or maybe an immature female bay-breasted warbler.  Such is the joy and challenge of warbler watching!

One might think that after 40 years of birding I would be embarrassed to admit my confusion but I've never mastered the art of identifying warblers at a distance; I'm satisfied to just call it a warbler, the first of the season.  Its visit offers reassurance that the parade of migrants and summer residents is well underway and that the threat of more winter weather, though not out of the question, is fading with each day.  Listening to the homesick tune of the white-throated sparrows, anxious to return to Canada, I know they share my sentiment.

Tuesday, April 12, 2016

The Homewreckers Arrive

As color explodes and birdsong intensifies across central Missouri, the first pair of brown-headed cowbirds arrived on our property.  Moving about the yard, the male engaged in his courtship display, anxious to mate with his bride; unfortunately, neither is willing to accept parental responsibilities.

Throughout the warmer months, the female will lay eggs in the nests of other songbirds; once they hatch, the young cowbirds, often larger and more aggressive than their nest mates, are raised by the adoptive parents, who may lose some of their own offspring in the process.  By turning over parental duties to other birds, cowbirds augment their breeding efficiency and boost the population of their own species.

Birders thus tend to despise these homewreckers, empathizing with the exploited parents.  But nature is neither fair nor sentimental and her web of life is festooned with unpleasant and seemingly cruel forms of animal behavior.  In the case of cowbirds, their instinctual disruption of other families has proved to be a very effective survival technique.

Sunday, April 10, 2016

A Morning for Snipe

On this stormy morning at Eagle Bluffs Conservation Area, a dense cloud deck blocked out the April sun, extending the dim light of dawn.  Such conditions are favored by common snipe, chunky, long-billed "shorebirds" that inhabit inland swamps and wetlands of North America and Eurasia.  Breeding in Alaska, Canada and the Pacific Northwest, these reclusive birds winter across central and southern latitudes of our Continent.

A fair number were observed at Eagle Bluffs this morning, probing mudflats and flooded fields for a wide variety of invertebrates.  Drawn from the cover of cattails and marsh grass by the relative darkness (they generally feed at dawn and dusk), the snipe mingled in the shallows with lesser yellowlegs, American golden plovers, killdeer and blue-winged teal.  The latter ducks were abundant at the refuge, outnumbering American coot, northern shovelers, green-winged teal and lesser scaup on the lakes and pools.  A few dozen American white pelicans were present, as were double-crested cormorants, pied-billed grebes and two pairs of wood ducks; nesting bald eagles, great blue herons, tree swallows and a lone great egret rounded out the major sightings.

 As the mild weather of spring intensifies, the common snipe will move on to their northern breeding areas, relishing the cool, damp seclusion of bogs and dense riverine marshlands.  During the fervor of that season, males will emerge to perform nocturnal mating flights, their wings and tail vibrating to produce eerie sounds that echo across the wetlands.

Friday, April 8, 2016

Encounter at Fossil Lake

On my frequent trips between Colorado and Missouri, I always glance at a small lake just south of the Russell, Kansas, Exit.  The lake reliably attracts a variety of seasonal migrants, including gulls, snow geese, American white pelicans and double-crested cormorants.

This morning, on my way back to Missouri, I decided to stop for a closer look and found that Fossil Lake is easily viewed from a central, paved roadway and from dirt-gravel roads to either side.  A large flock of cormorants and several pairs of Canada geese were observed on the deeper waters, to the east, while the western shallows had attracted small flocks of northern shovelers, blue-winged teal and green-winged teal and a restless flock of western sandpipers; a great blue heron stalked the shoreline and a pair of marbled godwits huddled on a mudflat.

Turning around near the end of a graveled lane, I was approached by an older gentleman in classic farmer's garb; concerned that I may have invaded his property, I was pleased when he leaned against my pickup and asked if I had seen any interesting birds.  Initially feigning a lack of interest himself (he "only hunts and eats birds") he then reported on recent pelicans sightings and informed me that, like the birds, he goes south for the winter.  In fact, his place in South Texas is close to several birding hotspots, which draw hordes of birders searching for "green jays, caracaras and a bunch of Mexican species."  After chatting for ten minutes or so, I returned to the highway, glad to have visited Fossil Lake and its residents, both avian and human.

Thursday, April 7, 2016

The Nature of Statesmanship

A statesman (or stateswoman), unlike typical politicians, provides leadership by inspiring confidence, offering well-considered policies and demonstrating the willingness and capacity to work with those who oppose his/her positions.  Rather than ridiculing opponents by questioning their motives or competence, the statesman relies on personal skills and persuasive ideas to attract supporters.

Generally calm, thoughtful and well-informed, the statesman shuns brash comments and avoids bombastic arguments.  Inclined to think before she speaks and drawing on long-held beliefs, the statesman does not readily change her position but remains receptive to new, evidence-based information.  Neither is he likely to ignore or ridicule data that is derived from scientific research; mysticism does not inspire or influence a statesman's judgment.

While a few of our current Presidential Candidates have demonstrated moments of statesmanship, most fall back on the traditional tools of American politicians: deception, misplaced criticism and party loyalty.  Of course, at least two (we know who they are) are neither inclined nor equipped to assume the role of statesmen.

Tuesday, April 5, 2016

Dust Storms & Wildfires

It was mild and sunny along the Front Range urban corridor this morning but a dense band of clouds obscured the Continental Divide to our west.  Arriving just after noon, this cold front unleashed strong winds, gusting to 50 mph.

In many areas across Metro Denver, plumes of dust were generated by the winds, a common development in this semiarid region; quarries, construction sites and plowed fields often provide most of the particulates.  The winds themselves were the product of high pressure across the Pacific Northwest and low pressure over the Southern Plains (currently centered over southeastern Colorado); as the front pushed across the city, intense winds plummeted from the Front Range and scoured the Piedmont, dropping temperatures from the mid 60s F to the upper forties.

Far to our southeast, wildfires are burning across Oklahoma, aggravated by dry vegetation, air temperatures in the mid 80s F and potent winds ahead of the same cold front.  Since the atmosphere over the Great Plains is "moisture starved," little precipitation is expected with this Pacific storm system until it moves farther east, tapping into moisture from the Great Lakes, Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic Ocean.  A mild upslope behind the front may bring light showers to the Front Range this evening but there will be little relief across the Southern Plains where the wildfire risk is extreme.

Monday, April 4, 2016

A Disappointing Survey

On this mild, sunny morning along the Colorado Front Range, I decided to submit my first checklist report to eBird from South Platte Park, a refuge that I have birded hundreds of times over the years.  I chose my usual loop in the southern portion of the Park, which takes me along the river, past several lakes, across a wooded ridge and up to South Platte Reservoir.  Given the weather conditions, I had reason to expect a large number of birds and a wide variety of species.

Unfortunately, my expectations were not met.  Of the 23 species that I encountered, only American robins, red-winged blackbirds and buffleheads were abundant; I did observe my first tree swallows of the season (at this particular site) and certainly enjoyed the walk.  The only unusual observation (and the highlight of the morning) was the presence of three long-tailed ducks on the reservoir; in fact, long-tails have graced the Park for the past several winters.

Filing my report on the eBird website, I was a bit disappointed with my contribution.  On the other hand, all data is important, including that which reflects relatively low populations and limited avian diversity on a given date.  Hopefully, if nature is so inclined, my next report from South Platte Park will be more extensive.

Sunday, April 3, 2016

Bushtit Thievery

Bushtits are common residents and visitors on our Littleton, Colorado, farm but their numbers vary widely throughout the year.  This week, a single pair has been twittering about the property and, on this warm, sunny morning, I noticed that they were constructing a nest.

Using a wide variety of soft natural materials (including spider webs), nesting bushtit pairs construct a hanging, sock-like nest; this project may take several weeks or more and is usually placed in a conifer.  Other bushtits may assist with the construction and, once the job is completed, are permitted to sleep in the nest with the parents and their offspring (until the eggs hatch and the young fledge); a second brood and social sleep-in may follow, using the same nest.

Known to use human materials for their nests as well, our current pair has located a source of insulation material, retrieved from a crack in the garage wall.  As I sat reading (sort of) beneath the adjacent crabapple tree, the bushtits made dozens of sorties to and from the nest site in one of our pinyon pines.  Their cleverness was certainly admired and their thievery is forgiven.